Dr. Harpp focuses on the history of food, its early scientific research, problems, and reforms. He first begins with representing the population of the world (~7 billion) down into 100 people. Out of these 100 humans, 17 would be illiterate, 16 would be malnourished, 21 obese, and 7 with a university education.

Orthorexia Nervosa: an UNHEALTHY OBSESSION in eating only the right foods. It is not in the DSM-V but I wouldn’t be surprised if it shows up in the next edition. (more info here – https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/orthorexia-nervosa)

“Eat food, not too much, mostly plants.” The Omnivore’s Dilemma by Michael Pollan. The main components of food are a handful of elements from the periodic table – carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and a few others. The emphasis throughout the course is to formulate a good and balanced diet, some things in more moderation than others, for weight control.

The “good old days” 100 years ago where not as idyllic as some young folk may think these days. Life expectancy was under 50, whereas it’s now reaching over 80. There was still dumpster diving for food, lack of varied nutrients in diets of the lower classes, and still the ever-present snake oil salesmen, etc. (Don’t forget it was also the era before the invention of vaccines to prevent such diseases as Polio, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Whopping Cough, etc.) Salt became iodized in the early 1900’s to treat goiters (http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/goiter/basics/definition/con-20021266).

Plumpy Nut is a peanut-based, fat-based, protein-based paste food developed and given to children in third-world countries with not enough food supply to assist in malnourishment.

Functional foods: foods with added benefits such as vitamin D added to milk or omega-3 fatty acids added to milk. Some are more important than others.

Cultural food movements in North America – freeganism, rawesome food movement (mainly among Hollywood celebrities), insects as a food source (considered a source of protein to those not of a squeamish nature), vegetarian, veganism, omnivore, etc.

Short note on Google – it can be either your friend or foe. If a website is selling something on the side of providing information, oftentimes that is what is called a conflict of interest. (Doctors aren’t allowed to do that in their own office.) Look for references and check sources against other more reputable sources. Just reading one article or blog post does not equate a full understanding of the topic.
Food reforms: Plaster of Paris was once added to make bread heavier, thereby increasing the price. Along came the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 to help change such malpractices of food production from occurring and preventing public harm.

Food problems: it spoils, cannot always be distributed most effectively, and then there’s the destruction of pests to always contend with. Food may be plentiful but is it nutritious?

The comparison of two societies and the difference in what foods are consumed (determined by cultural as well as economic factors): The US eats more wheat, milk, and meat products, whereas India surpasses the US in the consumption of rice, corn, and legumes.

An Apple contains –

1. Flavors. To name just a few – acetone (nail polish remover), formaldehyde (embalming fluid), methanol (wood alcohol), 2-propenol (rubbing alcohol), and other volatile materials. We are always consuming chemicals; just many are not harmful due to the miniscule concentrations involved. (The dose makes the poison – Paracelsus.) These chemicals (as seen in the picture I googled around for) combine and interact in such a complex manner as to make the apple taste distinctly like an apple. (As the 9th doctor would say, Facinating!)

2. Sugar – about 18 grams in one apple.

3. Water – when put through a vacuum desiccator, about 120 mL, or 85% of the apple is water. Watermelon, touted as having the most water, has 96% BUT radishes beat them by containing 98% water.

4. Fiber

Macronutrients – fat, protein, complex carbs, sugar. Fats are more easily stored by the body than carbohydrates.

Micronutrients – vitamins and minerals (to be presented later by Dr. Fenster).